The relationship between economic disparities and health outcomes in a population

Biology and genetics It is the interrelationships among these factors that determine individual and population health. Because of this, interventions that target multiple determinants of health are most likely to be effective.

The relationship between economic disparities and health outcomes in a population

What are Health and Health Care Disparities? Health and health care disparities refer to differences in health and health care between population groups. Disparities in health and health care not only affect the groups facing disparities, but also limit overall gains in quality of care and health for the broader population and result in unnecessary costs.

Addressing health disparities is increasingly important as the population becomes more diverse. What is the Status of Disparities Today? Many groups are at disproportionate risk of being uninsured, lacking access to care, and experiencing worse health outcomes. For example, people of color and low-income individuals are more likely to be uninsured, face barriers to accessing care, and have higher rates of certain conditions compared to Whites and those at higher incomes.

What are Key Initiatives to Address Disparities? The Affordable Care Act ACA coverage expansions helped narrow longstanding disparities in health coverage for people of color and low income individuals.

What is at stake for disparities Looking Forward? Although the ACA sharply reduced uninsured rates for people of color and low-income individuals, coverage disparities remain, and changing federal priorities could reverse recent progress reducing disparities.

Continued enrollment efforts could further narrow coverage disparities, but the share of remaining nonelderly uninsured who are eligible for coverage varies by race and ethnicity. Moreover, recent reductions in funding for outreach and enrollment may limit continued coverage gains.

Further, changing federal priorities could lead to coverage losses and other reverses in recent advances in reducing disparities. Health and health care disparities refer to differences in health and health care between populations.

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Health and health care disparities often refer to differences that cannot be explained by variations in health needs, patient preferences, or treatment recommendations. Health inequality and inequity also are used to refer to disparities. Individual factors include a variety of health behaviors from maintaining a healthy weight to following medical advice.

Provider factors encompass issues such as provider bias and cultural and linguistic barriers to patient-provider communication. How health care is organized, financed, and delivered also shapes disparities.

Social Determinants of Health Health and health care disparities are commonly viewed through the lens of race and ethnicity, but they occur across a broad range of dimensions.

For example, disparities occur across socioeconomic status, age, geography, language, gender, disability status, citizenship status, and sexual identity and orientation. Federal efforts to reduce disparities focus on designated priority populations who are vulnerable to health and health care disparities, including people of color, low-income groups, women, children, older adults, individuals with special health care needs, and individuals living in rural and inner-city areas.

Disparities also occur within subgroups of populations. For example, there are differences among Hispanics in health and health care based on length of time in the country, primary language, and immigration status. Disparities have been documented for many decades and, despite overall improvements in population health over time, many disparities have persisted and, in some cases, widened.

Disparities in health and health care not only affect the groups facing disparities, but also limit overall improvements in quality of care and health for the broader population and result in unnecessary costs.

Addressing disparities in health and health care is not only important from a social justice standpoint, but also for improving the health of all Americans by achieving improvements in overall quality of care and population health.

Moreover, health disparities are costly. It is projected that people of color will account for over half of the population inwith the largest growth occurring among Hispanics Figure 2.

There also are wide gaps in income across the population. Today, many groups face significant disparities in access to and utilization of care. People of color generally face more access barriers and utilize less care than Whites.

For example, among nonelderly adults, Hispanics, Blacks, and American Indians and Alaska Natives are more likely than Whites to delay or go without needed care Figure 4.

Moreover, nonelderly Black and Hispanic adults are less likely than their White counterparts to have a usual source of care or to have had a health or dental visit in the previous year Figure 5. Low-income individuals also experience more barriers to care and receive poorer quality care than high-income individuals.

For example, individuals living in rural areas have more limited access to private coverage compared to those in urban areas and face significant barriers to accessing care.Health and health care disparities refer to differences in health and health care between population groups.

The relationship between economic disparities and health outcomes in a population

Disparities occur across many dimensions, including race/ethnicity, socioeconomic. Determinants of health reach beyond the boundaries of traditional health care and public health sectors; sectors such as education, housing, transportation, agriculture, and environment can be important allies in improving population health.

Research based on decades of experience in the developing world has identified educational status (especially of the mother) as a major predictor of health outcomes, and economic trends in the industrialized world have intensified the relationship between education and health.

Jun 16,  · Social determinants of health are conditions in the environments in which people are born, live, learn, work, play, worship, and age that affect a wide range of health, functioning, and quality-of-life outcomes and risks. The relationship between education and health has existed for generations, despite dramatic improvements in medical care and public health.

Recent data show that the association between education and health has grown dramatically in the last four decades. For example, the Department of Health and Human Services describes health disparities as “differences in health outcomes that are closely linked with social, economic, and environmental.

Frequently Asked Questions | Social Determinants of Health | NCHHSTP | CDC