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The National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems A considerable amount of evidence suggests that approaches involving early intervention, ongoing progress monitoring, and effective classroom instruction consistent with Response to Intervention RTI are associated with improved outcomes for the majority of students in early reading and math e.
Considerably less information exists, however, about the effectiveness of these approaches with a growing population of students, English language learners ELLs at risk for reading problems. We also have considerably less information about the types of interventions that are effective for students who do not adequately respond to the interventions that typically are effective Vaughn et al.
Such students are likely to be identified as having learning disabilities. This article briefly highlights the knowledge base on reading and RTI for ELLs, and provides preliminary support for the use of practices Language teacher response to RTI with this population.
Bilingual education students receive instruction in their native language and a structured program of ESL instruction. Students in ESL programs do not receive native language instruction; they are typically taught within general education classrooms and receive a support program for ESL.
For example, there are subgroups Language teacher response students whose literacy knowledge and skills in their first language e. These students have demonstrated the capacity to acquire reading skills and now require instruction so they can apply those skills to the acquisition of English literacy.
Other students may have low literacy in both first language and English because they have not received adequate instruction in either language. Still another group of students, the smallest group, demonstrates low literacy skills in both their first language and English even after receiving adequate instruction.
For these reasons and myriad others, there are no formulas or ready guidelines that can be easily provided for assessment and treatment. It is also noteworthy that although there are many caveats and considerations involved in decision making about screening, assessment, and intervention for ELLs, parents and educators cannot postpone decision making until a better knowledge base is available.
They are eager to make decisions that will be associated with improved outcomes and that will facilitate appropriate early identification and intervention when required.
Thus, the following guidelines are provided to encourage educators to promote effective practices related to RTI with ELLs and to acquire further knowledge and skills so that they demonstrate improved confidence in their decision making with these students. Keep in mind, though, that teachers and schools must proceed with the most effective practices possible.
Also, please note that these guidelines may be altered as new research evidence becomes available. Many educators, including those providing special education services, are concerned that they do not have the knowledge and skills to appropriately instruct ELLs.
As a result, they may elect to do the minimum amount needed to intervene and instruct. For this reason, it is essential that educators be provided with the resources needed to support them in this process.
Being provided professional development for enhancement of knowledge and skills is essential; in addition, a problem-solving team with knowledge and experience working with ELLs can be a valuable resource to facilitate decision making and to design instructional supports.
Provide ongoing and research-based professional development to teachers and other school personnel. Fully credentialed bilingual education and ESL teachers must continuously acquire new knowledge regarding best practices in bilingual education and ESL.
General education teachers should regularly participate in professional development focused on meeting the needs of ELLs e. ELLs can be screened on the same early reading indicators as native English language speakers, including phonological awareness, letter knowledge, and word and text reading Gersten et al.
Consider the proficiency in the target areas in the L1 of ELLs.
Students highly proficient in early reading skills in L1 and low in that proficiency in L2 can be considered instructionally different from students low in proficiency in L1 and L2. Provide instructional support to ELLs with low performance in reading areas even when oral language skills in English are low.
Interventions should simultaneously address development of language and literacy skills in English.
When ELLs demonstrate low abilities in grade-level target skills in reading, provide research-based instruction.
Do not penalize students for dialect features.Enlarging the teacher's repertoire. Anticipating possible language difficulties should lead to appropriate scaffolding, not lowered Extending English-language learners' classroom interactions using the Response Protocol expectations for student performance.
Ben Hill is Selected to Participate in New Computer Science Programs. The National Science Foundation has awarded the Georgia Department of Education a $, grant to align and support the efforts of several Georgia school districts that are introducing K computer science education.
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Dear Colleague: With my pioneer research in the past 50 years, we learned a lot about acquiring languages by observing infants. For example, infants do not start life speaking their native language. Language education refers to the process and practice of acquiring a second or foreign language.
It is primarily a branch of applied linguistics, however can be considered an interdisciplinary field. There are four main learning categories for language education: communicative competencies, proficiencies, cross-cultural experiences, and multiple . Language teaching methodologies.
Listed below are brief summaries of some of the more popular second language teaching methods of the last half century.