Political Awakening, Freedom Movement and Integration. Religious Movements and religious philosophy in Ancient and Medieval India. Concept of Developing, Emerging and Developed countries.
History and varieties Literary Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, has been strongly influenced by Sanskrit. Its standard form is based on the Khari Boli dialectfound to the north and east of Delhi.
Braj Bhashawhich was an important literary medium from the 15th to the 19th century, is often treated as a dialect of Hindi, as are Awadhi, Bagheli, Bhojpuri, Bundeli, Chhattisgarhi, Garhwali, Haryanawi, Kanauji, Kumayuni, Magahi, and Marwari.
Within this zone, the degree to which regional languages resemble standard Hindi varies considerably.
Maithili—the Discipline in hindi regional language of the Hindi belt—bears more historical resemblance to Bengali than Discipline in hindi standard Hindi. Likewise, Rajasthanithe westernmost language of the belt, in some respects resembles Gujarati more than standard Hindi.
Nevertheless, the majority of speakers of these regional languages consider themselves to be speaking a Hindi dialect. Among other reasons, they note that these languages were grouped with Hindi by the British in an attempt to classify languages in the early days of British rule. Furthermore, Hindi rather than one of the regional languages was chosen as the medium of instruction at the elementary-school level.
In large part as a result of this colonial policy, members of the urban middle class and educated villagers throughout the zone claim to be speakers of Hindi because the use of these regional languages or dialects in public venues—that is, outside the circle of family and close friends—is perceived as a sign of inadequate education.
In other words, speaking standard Hindi gives as much status to people in this region as speaking English gives in the south of India; both are treated as languages of upward social mobility.
Thus, people in search of new jobs, marriages, and the like must use standard Hindi in everyday communication. In many cases, young people now have only a passive knowledge of the regional languages. Particularly since the s, the prevalence of mass media radio, television, and films and growing literacy have led to an increase in the number of native speakers of standard Hindi.
Occasionally there are demands for the formation of separate states for the speakers of one or another regional language. For instance, when the demand for the formation of a separate state of Maithili speakers was raised in Bihar in the s and s, there was a counterdemand for the recognition of Angika in eastern Bihar and Bajjika in northwestern Bihar.
The successful demands for forming the new states of Chhattisgarh from territory once in Madhya Pradesh and Uttaranchal from territory in Uttar Pradesh was more sociopolitical than linguistic.
Grammar Sanskrit and the Prakrit and Apabhramsha languages—the precursors of Hindi—are nominally and verbally inflected. In the nominal realm, the adjective agrees in number and gender with the noun that it qualifies. This is less the case for Hindi because it was greatly influenced by Persianin which the adjective does not change as a result of a number change in the noun.
Instead, Hindi indicates number agreement via postpositions—small words that appear after nouns and function much like English prepositions. Hindi has also reduced the number of genders to two masculine and femininewhereas other Sanskrit-based languages, such as Gujarati and Marathihave retained the neuter gender as well.
Persian influence also caused the Hindi system of case marking to become simpler, reducing it to a direct form and an oblique form.
Postpositions are used to indicate the other case relations. The verbal inflection of Hindi is also simpler than that of the regional languages of the Hindi zone. Only the present and future indicative forms are fully conjugated in Hindi, while other tenses are indicated with the help of perfective and imperfective participles combined with the auxiliary verbs.
As the new immigrants settled and began to adjust to the Indian social environmenttheir languages—which were ultimately lost—enriched Khari Boli. Persian names for items of dress and bedding e. Contact with the English language has also enriched Hindi.
Many English words, such as button, pencil, petrol, and college are fully assimilated in the Hindi lexicon.
Hindi has borrowed a number of prefixes and suffixes from Persian that, when combined with indigenous roots, have created new words.
In spoken Hindi, English-based complex verbs are used as well. It had minimal grammatical forms and a simplified basic vocabulary used by both Europeans and Indians who spoke such languages as AssameseBengaliOriyaTamiland Hindi.
Read this essay specially written for you on “Discipline” in Hindi Language. Welcome to vetconnexx.com! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Essay. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and. Hindi Essay On Discipline. Skinner's theories on discipline in the classroom have helped to mold the way teachers instill discipline in their students for decades. His theories were not directed at classroom behavior. Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw’s Lecture at Defence Services College, Wellington on Leadership and Discipline 11th November, Commandant, Ladies and Gentlemen, I am fully conscious of the privilege, which is mine, to have been invited here to address the college.
In the early 21st century, what came to be known simply as Hindustani —a colloquial spoken language that, depending on geographic location, draws extensively from Hindi and Sanskrit or from Urdu and Persian—continued to be the lingua franca of Kolkata and other cosmopolitan and industrial cities that had drawn people from all parts of India.
As Hindi originated in just such a multilingual situation centuries ago, so may urbanism instigate the development of an even richer lexicon and even more flexible syntactic devices. Pressure on standard Hindi is felt not only from non-Hindi speakers but also from the many Hindi speakers who have recently switched over from their dialects to standard Hindi without having entirely eliminated the influences of those regional languages.
The Central Hindi Directorate, a government agency with the mission of standardizing and modernizing Hindi, is moving the language closer to Sanskrit.
Non-Hindi speakers, however, are pulling the language in another direction by using increasing numbers of English words and phrases and by simplifying the complex rules of subject-verb agreement found in standard Hindi.
Notably, both groups are motivated by the same goal—to widen the scope of Hindi by making it more comprehensible to non-Hindi speakers. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:Books at Amazon. The vetconnexx.com Books homepage helps you explore Earth's Biggest Bookstore without ever leaving the comfort of your couch.
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Contextual translation of "story of discipline in hindi" into Hindi. Human translations with examples: MyMemory, World's Largest Translation Memory. Discipline in Hindi: अनुशासन एक सामाजिक मर्यादा है जो हमें स्वानुभूति से करना चाहिए | प्रकृति के अनुशासन में व्यवधान आ जाए, तो आकाल या दुष्काल का जन्म होता है | ठीक उसी.