NCP Clinical Quarterly 4 2: Spring The significance of critical incident stress debriefing CISD to the fields of traumatic stress and emergency response is evident in its worldwide application e. Originally developed to mitigate stress responses among emergency first responders 8the growing use of these protocols with victims of community-wide disasters deserves scrutiny.
CIP[ edit ] The U. CIP is a national program to ensure the security of vulnerable and interconnected infrastructures of the United States. Take, for example, a computer virus that disrupts the distribution of natural gas across a region.
This could lead to a consequential reduction in electrical power generationwhich in turn leads to the forced shutdown of computerized controls and communications. Road traffic, air traffic, and rail transportation might then become affected.
Emergency services might also be hampered. An entire region can become debilitated because some critical elements in the infrastructure become disabled through natural disaster. While potentially in contravention of the Geneva Conventions military forces have also recognized that it can cripple an enemy's ability to resist by attacking key elements of its civilian and military infrastructure.
The federal government has developed a standardized description of critical infrastructure, in order to facilitate monitoring and preparation for disabling events. The government requires private industry in each critical economic sector to: Assess its vulnerabilities to both physical or cyber attacks Plan to eliminate significant vulnerabilities Develop systems to identify and prevent attempted attacks Alert, contain and rebuff attacks and then, with the Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMAto rebuild essential capabilities in the aftermath Infrastructure sectors[ edit ] CIP defines sectors and organizational responsibilities in a standard way: Note that CIP in this sector is different from energy securitywhich is the politics and economics of supply.
Additionally, operating under the auspices of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is the North American Electric Reliability Corporation NERCa non-profit organization that defines and enforces reliability standards for the bulk power system.
Search and rescue teams formed from various emergency services coordinated by FEMA Federal and municipal services: They guarantee continuity of government at the federal, state, and local levels to meet for provision of essential services.
This includes safe water systems and drainage. In the remit was expanded to include: Agriculture and food, with the Department of Agriculture overseeing the safe supply of meat, poultry, and egg products.
National monuments and icons, under the Department of the Interior With much of the critical infrastructure privately owned, the Department of Defense DoD depends on commercial infrastructure to support its normal operations.
The Department of State and the Central Intelligence Agency are also involved in intelligence analysis with friendly countries. It is going to be against commercial infrastructure". Later this fear was qualified by President Clinton after reports of actual cyber terrorist attacks in I don't think it was Pearl Harbor.
We lost our Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor. I don't think the analogous loss was that great.
One such example occurred in September where a Russian national allegedly masterminded the break-in of Citicorp 's electronic funds transfer system and was ordered to stand trial in the United States.
A gang of hackers under his leadership had breached Citicorp's security 40 times during In the past, the systems and networks of the infrastructure elements were physically and logically independent and separate. They had little interaction or connection with each other or other sectors of the infrastructure.
With advances in technology, the systems within each sector became automated, and interlinked through computers and communications facilities. As a result, the flow of electricity, oil, gas, and telecommunications throughout the country are linked—albeit sometimes indirectly—but the resulting linkages blur traditional security borders.
While this increased reliance on interlinked capabilities helps make the economy and nation more efficient and perhaps stronger, it also makes the country more vulnerable to disruption and attack.Incident map (i.e., map of incident scene) Additional component plans, as indicated by the incident.
What follows is an example of an individual healthcare organization (HCO) action plan, as it might appear following response planning by the HCO incident management team.
Master of Public Health Academic Requirements Academic Requirements. The Master of Public Health Program (MPH) is currently offered as a part-time or full-time program.
The 10 most iconic Mean Girls quotes and why people celebrate the classic movie on October 3rd Police have declared a major incident in Wiltshire after it was feared.
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Caught off guard and "numb" from the impact of a critical incident, individuals and communities are often ill-equipped to handle the chaos of such a catastrophic situation. A man and a woman are in a critical condition after falling ill near the English town where a former Russian spy and his daughter were poisoned.