Brief history of shorthand writing abbreviations

The not complete-idiot's guide to: Alternative Handwriting for Dummies Introduction The letters you are now reading, while well adapted to the eye to be read, are so ill adapted to the hand to be written that schools teach longhand as an alternative to printing them. As a bonus for learning an alternative system, you can be almost certain that no one you know will be able to read anything you write, so you will have learned not only a fast but secret way to write. Learning an alternative to longhand can not only be fun and way cool, but practical as well.

Brief history of shorthand writing abbreviations

Retrieved from " http: Sujoy Mitra, Amity University Handwriting Handwriting is an acquired skill and clearly one that is a complex perceptual motor task, sometimes referred to as a neuromuscular task.

Skilled writing movements are so commonplace that one is inclined to overlook their complexity.

brief history of shorthand writing abbreviations

Without exaggeration, however writing is one of the most advanced achievements of the human hand. The hand is an extremely complex and delicate mechanism, containing some twenty-seven bones controlled by more than forty muscles.

Most of the muscles are situated in the lower arm and connect to the fingers by an brief history of shorthand writing abbreviations set of tendons. Their ability in manipulating a writing instrument is precisely coordinated by a timing system under a neural control of movements of the arm, the hand, and the fingers.

The precise ordering and timing of the movements determines the structure of the pattern i. The development of writing is complex because, it is, in part, culture dependent, and cultures differ with locales and undergo constant change. The evidence of this dependence in manifesting in class, system, or national characteristics.

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Writing is a continuous or flowing task, not one of discrete or separated actions. There are apparent interruptions at word boundaries, but in many cases the pen movement may be continuous and uninterrupted, although not recorded as an inked line. A feature of skill performance, and certainly of handwriting, is that it involves the movement occurs at its proper time and place in the sequence.

The particular pattern of these movements constitutes the habitual aspects of writing that are peculiar to each individual. The fact that, with practice and skill, the execution of writing habits becomes more automatic renders the writing process less subject to conscious control.

A Handwriting Identification: Handwriting identification There are two fundamental fields of study pertaining to handwriting: The study of handwriting as a neuromuscular activity, its development as a skill and the effect upon it of various and external factors.

Modern shorthand systems

The study of handwriting identification as a discriminatory process. Handwriting identification is a discriminatory process that derives from the compression of writing habits and an evaluation of significance of their similarities or differences.

What has been commonly and frequently referred to characteristics or writing features, or qualities are simplified manifestations of the habits formed. They are the discriminating elements of handwriting. Writing characteristics have been commonly described as being of one of two types: Class characteristics were seen in predominant writing system but the current move of the many more excellence of modern writing, class characteristics are progressively less discernible and identifiable in the inscription of present day writers.

The individual characteristic β€” is a large combination of handwriting system.

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Process of underlying identification The careful and systematic use of evidence, which is common to the many disciplines of forensic science, is directed toward the identification of an unknown. The process involves three distinct steps or stages: Analysis or discriminating element determination: The unknown item and the known items must, by analysis, by examination or study, be reduced to a matter of their discriminating elements.

These are the habits of behavior or of performances that serve to differentiate between products or people, which may be directly observable, measurable or otherwise perceptible aspects of the item. The discriminating element of the unknown, observed or determined through analysis, examination or study, must be compared with those known, observed, or recorded of the standard items.

Similarities or dissimilarities in discriminating elements will each have a certain value for discrimination purposes, determined by their cause, independence, or likelihood of occurrence.

The weight or significance of the similarities or the difference of each element must then be considered and the explanation for them proposed. Accordingly, we would suggest five respects in which a signature, or a writing, may be judged to rate its intricacies or complexity: The aggregate line length: Generally speaking, the longer the line, the more complex the design, there are of course some stylist signature that contain length of strokes of no purpose.

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We are not referring to this. The number of pronounced directional changes in the line: If not the directional changes in writing will be due simply to allograph design. The number of overwriting: Overwriting can be misleading stroke direction, and thus confusing as to allograph construction.Shorthand, also called stenography, a system for rapid writing that uses symbols or abbreviations for letters, words, or phrases.

Among the most popular modern . A brief look at various handwriting and shorthand systems and why they're needed. But the brief form is more than a simple abbreviation, it’s the distillation of the basic premise of shorthand: Never write more than is necessary to understand it later.

Propositional Logic. Propositional logic, also known as sentential logic and statement logic, is the branch of logic that studies ways of joining and/or modifying entire propositions, statements or sentences to form more complicated propositions, statements or sentences, as well as the logical relationships and properties that are derived from .

The Joy of Pitman Shorthand – Brief explanation, list of links, and video in 3 parts demonstrating writing (linked to YouTube). Pitman for Geeks – An introduction . History Classical antiquity.

The earliest known indication of shorthand systems is from the Parthenon in Ancient Greece, where a mid-4th century BC marble slab was shows a writing system primarily based on vowels, using certain modifications to .

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