The word "socialism" often implies two quite different phenomena: A doctrine and an appeal based on it, a program for changing life, and A social structure that exists in time and space.
Man is a conscious subject, rather than a thing to be predicted or manipulated; he exists as a conscious being, and not in accordance with any definition, essence, generalization, or system. Existentialism says I am nothing else but my own conscious existence.
Lavine A second existentialist theme is that of anxiety, or the sense of anguish, a generalized uneasiness, a fear or dread which is not directed to any specific object. Anguish is the dread of the nothingness of human existence. This theme is as old as Kierkegaard within existentialism; it is the claim that anguish is the underlying, all-pervasive, universal condition of human existence.
Existentialism agrees with certain streams of thought in Judaism and Christianity which see human existence as fallen, and human life as lived in suffering and sin, guilt and anxiety.
This dark and forboding picture of human life leads existentialists to reject ideas such as happiness, enlightenment optimism, a sense of well-being, the serenity of Stoicism, since these can only reflect a superficial understanding of life, or a naive and foolish way of denying the despairing, tragic aspect of human existence.
A third existentialist theme is that of absurdity. Granted, says the existentialist, I am my own existence, but this existence is absurd. To exist as a human being is inexplicable, and wholly absurd. Each of us is simply here, thrown into this time and placebut why now?
For no reason, without necessary connection, only contingently, and so my life is an absurd contingent fact. Lavine The fourth theme which pervades existentialism is that of nothingness or the void. If no essences define me, and if, then, as an existentialist, I reject all of the philosophies, sciences, political theories, and religions which fail to reflect my existence as conscious being and attempt to impose a specific essentialist structure upon me and my world, then there is nothing that structures my world.
I have stripped myself of all unacceptable structure, the structures of knowledge, moral value, and human relationship, and I stand in anguish at the edge of the abyss. I am my own existence, but my existence is a nothingness. I live then without anything to structure my being and my world, and I am looking into emptiness and the void, hovering over the abyss in fear and trembling and living the life of dread.
Lavine Related to the theme of nothingness is the existentialist theme of death. Nothingness, in the form of death, which is my final nothingness, hangs over me like a sword of Damocles at each moment of my life.
I am filled with anxiety at times when I permit myself to be aware of this. At those moments, says Martin Heideggerthe most influential of the German existentialist philosophers, the whole of my being seems to drift away into nothing. The unaware person tries to live as if death is not actual, he tries to escape its reality.
But Heidegger says that my death is my most authentic, significant moment, my personal potentiality, which I alone must suffer. And if I take death into my life, acknowledge it, and face it squarely, I will free myself from the anxiety of death and the pettiness of life-- and only then will I be free to become myself.
But here the French existentialist Jean-Paul Sartre begs to differ. What is death, he asks? Death is my total nonexistence. Death is as absurd as birth-- it is no ultimate, authentic moment of my life, it is nothing but the wiping out of my existence as conscious being.
Death is only another witness to the absurdity of human existence. Lavine Alienation or estrangement is a sixth theme which characterizes existentialism. Alienation is a theme which Hegel opened up for the modern world on many levels and in many subtle forms. Thus the Absolute is estranged from itself as it exists only in the development of finite spirit in historical time.
But finite spirit also lives in alienation from its true consciousness of its own freedom, which it gains only slowly in the dialectic of history. There is also the alienation that exists in society: Alienated from the social system, they do not know that their desires are system-determined and system-determining.Mentions of the Harry Potter Bibliography "Since , Cornelia Rémi has maintained an up-to-date and marvelously informative website of international scholarship, symposia, sources, [ ] which attests to the ever-growing, worldwide attention being given to this literature and the vast sea of literary productions emerging from that attention.".
An Overview of Existentialism Theory. Print Reference this. Disclaimer: Existentialism and Humanism. 1st ed. London: Methuen. Slow cinema is a cinematography style which stems from the artist film genre and which involves conveying a sense of a designed slowness to its viewer.
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|Related Pages||Existence precedes essence Sartre claimed that a central proposition of Existentialism is that existence precedes essencewhich means that the most important consideration for individuals is that they are individuals—independently acting and responsible, conscious beings "existence" —rather than what labels, roles, stereotypes, definitions, or other preconceived categories the individuals fit "essence".|
|Sartre: Existentialism is a humanism (Summary)||Yes, thus the goal of existentialism.|
Existentialism is a concept that is often explored in works of literature as a way of displaying a characters interaction with society. Existentialism is defined as"an introspective humanism or theory of man that holds that human existence is not exhaustively describable or understandable in either scientific or idealistic terms and.
Existentialism insists on human freedom of choice and responsibility for one’s actions as the authentic source of meaning in human existence. Sartre, De Beauvoir, and Camus explored the apparently chaotic world of human freedom to discover its inner law.
Albert Camus (–) was a journalist, editor and editorialist, playwright and director, novelist and author of short stories, political essayist and activist—and, although he more than once denied it, . What is existentialism? What are the key concepts?
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