Edo society had an elaborate social structure, in which everyone knew their place and level of prestige.
Prehistory before BC [ edit ] Historical changes to the landscape[ edit ] The prehistory of the area that is now the Netherlands was largely shaped by its constantly shifting, low-lying geography.
On display in the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in Leiden. The area that is now the Netherlands was inhabited by early humans at least 37, years ago, as attested by flint tools discovered in Woerden in After the end of the ice age, various Paleolithic groups inhabited the area.
Another group residing elsewhere is known to have made canoes. The oldest recovered canoe in the world is the Pesse canoe.
Autochthonous hunter-gatherers from the Swifterbant culture are attested from around BC onwards. To the west, the same tribes might have built hunting camps to hunt winter game, including seals.
The arrival of farming around — BC [ edit ] Agriculture arrived in the Netherlands somewhere around BC with the Linear Pottery culturewho were probably central European farmers. Agriculture was practised only on the loess plateau in the very south southern Limburgbut even there it was not established permanently.
Farms did not develop in the rest of the Netherlands. There is also some evidence of small settlements in the rest of the country.
These people made the switch to animal husbandry sometime between BC and BC. Dutch archaeologist Leendert Louwe Kooijmans wrote, "It is becoming increasingly clear that the agricultural transformation of prehistoric communities was a purely indigenous process that took place very gradually.
The Funnelbeaker culture was a farming culture extending from Denmark through northern Germany into the northern Netherlands. In this period of Dutch prehistory the first notable remains were erected: To the west, the Vlaardingen culture around BCan apparently more primitive culture of hunter-gatherers survived well into the Neolithic period.
Corded Ware and Bell Beaker cultures around — BC [ edit ] Around BCE there was a transition from the Funnelbeaker farming culture to the Corded Ware pastoralist culture, a large archeological horizon appearing in western and central Europe, that is associated with the advance of Indo-European languages.
This transition was probably caused by developments[ clarification needed ] in eastern Germany, and it occurred within two generations. The first evidence of the use of the wheel dates from this period, about BC.
This culture also experimented with working with copper. Evidence of this, including stone anvils, copper knives, and a copper spearhead, was found on the Veluwe.
Copper finds show that there was trade with other areas in Europe, as natural copper is not found in Dutch soil. Bronze Age around — BC [ edit ] A bronze ceremonial object not a sword, but called the "Sword of Jutphaas"dating from — BC and found south of Utrecht.
The earliest bronze tools have been found in the grave of a Bronze Age individual called "the smith of Wageningen ". More Bronze Age objects from later periods have been found in EpeDrouwen and elsewhere.
Broken bronze objects found in Voorschoten were apparently destined for recycling. This indicates how valuable bronze was considered in the Bronze Age. Typical bronze objects from this period included knives, swords, axes, fibulae and bracelets.
Location of the Elp and Hilversum cultures in the Bronze Age. Most of the Bronze Age objects found in the Netherlands have been found in Drenthe. One item shows that trading networks during this period extended a far distance.
Large bronze situlae buckets found in Drenthe were manufactured somewhere in eastern France or in Switzerland. The many finds in Drenthe of rare and valuable objects, such as tin-bead necklaces, suggest that Drenthe was a trading centre in the Netherlands in the Bronze Age.
In the second millennium BC, the region was the boundary between the Atlantic and Nordic horizons and was split into a northern and a southern region, roughly divided by the course of the Rhine.
In the north, the Elp culture c. The initial phase was characterized by tumuli — BC that were strongly tied to contemporary tumuli in northern Germany and Scandinavia, and were apparently related to the Tumulus culture — BC in central Europe.
This phase was followed by a subsequent change featuring Urnfield cremation burial customs — BC.During the 17th century the economically wealthy but politically and military fledgling Dutch Republic faced both foreign and domestic threat to its unity, security and prosperity.
These challenges caused the competition over domination of wealth, and trade, and the nationalism that people were showing to stop the war. Dutch Republic DBQ Samples and Comments Historical Background: Identify and analyze the challenges to the security, unity, and prosperity of the Dutch Republic, Take into account both Dutch and foreign opinions.
a large portion of the latter 17th century, and due to the Dutch lack of security at sea. Dutch Republic DBQ In the 17th century, the Dutch Republic experienced a Golden Age and was able to maintain security, unity, and prosperity in its society and economy.
The expensive wars with England and France, decline in trade and distrust between the Dutch provinces led to challenges in security, unity and prosperity of the Republic.
[tags: decline, trade, security, unity, prosperity]. Western Civ Ch By the late 18th century, the population of Naples, Italy, had reached nearly: The most valuable Dutch colonies during the 17th century were in: Southeast Asia.
Approximately how many Africans were transported across the Atlantic Ocean during the 18th century to be sold as slaves? Originally a Dutch colony in the 17th century, by Guyana had become a British possession.
The abolition of slavery led to settlement of urban areas by former slaves and the importation of indentured servants from India to work the sugar plantations.